Pathognomonic Points of different diseases

By | March 14, 2017

Here is the list of pathognomonic points about different diseases by which one can easily diagnose a disease and these points will help you in exams as well.

Endocrine system

  • Hurthle cell:

Esoinophillic epithelil cell lining the follicle

On ultrasound examination hurthle cell contain prominent mitochondria

Seen in: Hashimoto thyriodities


  • Orphan Annie eye nuclei or ground glass ,pseudo inclusion,  psammoama body and most common thyroid cancer

Seen in: Papillary carcinoma


  • Insulitis and ketone body

Seen in: Type 1 (one) diabetes malitus



  • Bite cell: bite cell are erythrocyte with bite of cytoplasm being removed by splenic macrophage and Heinz body which form from denatured hemoglobin

Seen in: G6PD deficiency


  • Rouleaux: “ stack of coin” refer to erythrocyte lining up in row, Bence jones protein(derived from gamma globulines) , punched out bone lesion , mott cell , flame cell ,russel body and M-spike

Seen in: Multiple myeloma


  • Howell jolly body: remnant of nuclear chromatin

Seen in: Severe anemia, patient without spleen, sickle cell anemia because in sickle cell anemia autosplenectomy occur.

  • Tear drop cell

Seen in: Thalassemia and myelofibrosis

  • Starry sky, EBV is causative agent

Seen in: Burkit’s lymphoma

  • Buttock cell

Seen in: Follicular lymphoma

  • Smudge cell (Para chute cell), generalized painless lymphadenopthy, weight loss, CD 19 CD 20 and CD 23 is the most common marker  , autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Seen in: CLL


Bones and joints

  • Mosaic pattern ,lion like face and chalkstic fracture

Seen in: Paget’s disease

  • Sequestrum= means dead pieces

Involucrum= means new bone formation

Seen in: Pyogenic osteomyelitis

  • Code man triangle and sunburst pattern

Seen in: Osteosarcoma



  • Onion skin appearance and hamer wright rosette

Seen in: Ewing sarcoma


  • Bone eburnation ,loose body (joint mice), osteophytes and subchondral cyst formation, Heberden’s node (DIP) and Boucherd’s node (PIP)

Seen in: Osteoarthritis



  • Pannus formation ,increased vascularity , swan neck deformity , boutonniere or button hole deformity and Baker’s cyst in popliteal fossa

Seen in: Rheumatoid arthritis



  • Blue bloater

Seen in: Chronic Bronchitis

  • Pink puffer and Barrel chest

Seen in: Emphysema

  • Bronchectesis , sinusitis and situs inverses

Seen in: Kertagener syndrome

  • Egg shell calcification

Seen in: Silicosis


  • Gohn focus= primary TB
  • Gohn complex= secondary TB


  • Aschoff bodies: which is the collection of anitschow cell, T-lymphocyte ,scattered cytoplasm , giant cell and fibriniod material.
  • Anitschow cell: which is enlarged macrophage also called caterpillar cell

Seen in: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD)



  • Fish mouth or button hole stenosis

Seen in: Stenosis of mitral valve in rheumatic heart disease


  • Stellate shaped cells

Seen in: Cardiac myxoma

  • Maccallum plaques

Seen in: Rheumatic endocarditis

  • Boot shaped heart

Seen in: Teratology of fellots (RVH)


  • Psammoma body: caused by apoptosis of tumor cells with dystrophic calcification

Seen in:

  1. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid ( most common cancer of thyroid
  2. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
  3. Meningioma
  4. mesothelium



  • Salt and pepper appearance

Seen in:

  1. Small cell carcinoma of lung
  2. Pheochromocytoma
  • Oval eye

Seen in: CMV


  • Anti platelet antibodies= idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ITP
  • Anti Neutrophil antibodies= vasculitis
  • Anti IgM antibodies= rheumatoid arthritis
  • Anti Histone antibodies= drug induced SLE
  • Anti Gliadin antibodies= celiac disease
  • Anti centromere antibodies= scleroderma (crest)
  • Anti basement antibodies= Good pasture’s syndrome
  • Antibody against acetylcholine receptor= Myasthenia gravis
  • Auto antibody against calcium channel = Lambert eaten myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)

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