Some of the most common questions people who have who are sexually active are “Am I pregnant?” “Could I get pregnant?” or “What is the possibility of being pregnant?” You should find most of your answers here. The most authoritative look at pregnancy symptoms comes from the American Pregnancy Association.
Are you wondering if you might be pregnant? The only way to know for sure is by taking apregnancy test.
But there are early symptoms of pregnancy that may point to the possibility. Here’s what to look for.
Do All Women Get Early Symptoms of Pregnancy?
Every woman is different. So are her experiences of pregnancy. Not every woman has the same symptoms or even the same symptoms from one pregnancy to the next.
Also, because the early symptoms of pregnancy often mimic the symptoms you might experience right before and during menstruation, you may not realize you’re pregnant.
What follows is a description of some of the most common early symptoms of pregnancy. You should know that these symptoms may be caused by other things besides being pregnant. So the fact that you notice some of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you are pregnant. The only way to tell for sure is with a pregnancy test.
Spotting and Cramping
After conception, the fertilized egg attaches itself to wall of the uterus. This can cause one of the earliest signs of pregnancy — spotting and, sometimes, cramping.
That’s called implantation bleeding. It occurs anywhere from six to 12 days after the egg is fertilized.
The cramps resemble menstrual cramps, so some women mistake them and the bleeding for the start of their period. The bleeding and cramps, however, are slight.
Besides bleeding, a woman may notice a white, milky discharge from her vagina. That’s related to the thickening of the vagina’s walls, which starts almost immediately after conception. The increased growth of cells lining the vagina causes the discharge.
This discharge, which can continue throughout pregnancy, is typically harmless and doesn’t require treatment. But if there is a bad smell related to the discharge or a burning and itching sensation, tell your doctor so they can check on whether you have a yeast or bacterial infection.
Breast changes are another very early sign of pregnancy. A woman’s hormone levels rapidly change after conception. Because of the changes, her breasts may become swollen, sore, or tingly a week or two later. Or they may feel heavier or fuller or feel tender to the touch. The area around the nipples, called the areola, may also darken.
Other things could cause breast changes. But if the changes are an early symptom of pregnancy, keep in mind that it is going to take several weeks to get used to the new levels of hormones. But when it does, breast pain should ease up.
Feeling very tired is normal in pregnancy, starting early on.
A woman can start feeling unusually fatigued as soon as one week after conceiving.
Why? It’s often related to a high level of a hormone called progesterone, although other things — such as lower levels of blood sugar, lower blood pressure, and a boost in blood production — can all contribute.
If fatigue is related to pregnancy, it’s important to get plenty of rest. Eating foods that are rich in protein and iron can help offset it.
Nausea (Morning Sickness)
Morning sickness is a famous symptom of pregnancy. But not every pregnant woman gets it.
The exact cause of morning sickness is not known but pregnancy hormones likely contribute to this symptom. Nausea during pregnancy may occur at any time of the day but most commonly in the morning.
Also, some women crave, or can’t stand, certain foods when they become pregnant. That’s also related to hormonal changes. The effect can be so strong that even the thought of what used to be a favorite food can turn a pregnant woman’s stomach.
It’s possible that the nausea, cravings, and food aversions can last for the entire pregnancy. Fortunately, the symptoms lessen for many women at about the 13th or 14th week of their pregnancy.
In the meantime, be sure to eat a healthy diet so that you and your developing baby get essential nutrients. You can talk to your doctor for advice on that.
The most obvious early symptom of pregnancy — and the one that prompts most women to get a pregnancy test — is a missed period. But not all missed or delayed periods are caused by pregnancy.
Also, women can experience some bleeding during pregnancy. If you are pregnant, ask your doctor what you should be aware of with bleeding. For example, when is bleeding normal and when is it a sign of an emergency?
There are reasons, besides pregnancy, for missing a period. it might be that you gained or lost too much weight. Hormonal problems, fatigue, or stress are other possibilities. Some women miss their period when they stop taking birth control pills. But if a period is late and pregnancy is a possibility, you may want to get a pregnancy test.
Other Early Symptoms of Pregnancy
Pregnancy brings changes in your hormonal balance. And that can cause other symptoms that include:
- Frequent urination. For many women, this starts around the sixth or eighth week after conception. Although this could be caused by a urinary tract infection, diabetes, or overusing diuretics, if you’re pregnant, it’s most likely due to hormonal levels.
- Constipation. During pregnancy, higher levels of the hormone progesterone can make you constipated. Progesterone causes food to pass more slowly through your intestines. To ease the problem, drink plenty of water, exercise, and eat plenty of high-fiber foods.
- Mood swings. These are common, especially during the first trimester. These are also related to changes in hormones.
- Headaches and back pain. Many pregnant women report frequent mild headaches, and others experience chronic back pain.
- Dizziness and fainting. These may be related to dilating blood vessels, lower blood pressure, and lower blood sugar.
A pregnant woman could have all of these symptoms, or maybe have only one or two. If any of these symptoms become bothersome, talk with your doctor about them so you can make a plan to offset them.
How to diagnose pregnancy.
The diagnosis of pregnancy requires a multifaceted approach using three area of assessment. These are history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and ultrasound examination
- History and physical examination: The classic presentation of pregnancy is a woman with menses of regular frequency who presents with amenorrhea, nausea, vomiting, generalized malaise, and breast tenderness. Physical examination findings may include an enlarged uterus, breast changes, softening and enlargement of the cervix and a bluish discoloration of the cervix from venous congestion. However, laboratory pregnancy test and ultrasound examination will often diagnosis the pregnancy before these physical changes are evident.
- Laboratory Testing: The most common laboratory test is measurement of the beta subunit of hCG (human Chorionic-Gonadotrophin). Levels of hCG can be found in both the blood and urine. The presence of hCG is the basis of most home and office based pregnancy tests. Other hormones that have been used in the diagnosis of pregnancy include progesterone and early pregnancy factor. Home pregnancy tests, which test for the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in urine, are often used to diagnose pregnancy. These tests claim an accuracy of 99 percent when used as directed. Sometimes a negative result is caused by performing these home tests too early, when HCG levels are not yet high enough for the test to detect. Blood or urine tests performed by a doctor are more sensitive to levels of HGC, especially blood tests; these can be performed earlier than a urine test and are even more accurate.
- Ultrasound Examination: Using vaginal ultrasound technology, the fetal or embryonic pole is visible at approximately 5-6 weeks’ gestation and cardiac activity is visible at approximately7-8 weeks. These are evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy.