Category Archives: Pharmacology

Paracetamol Important information (Usage, side effects, precautions)

What is paracetamol ? Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a pain reliever and a fever reducer. The exact mechanism of action of is not known. Paracetamol is used to treat many conditions such as headache, muscle aches, arthritis, backache, toothaches, colds, and fevers. It relieves pain in mild arthritis but has no effect on the underlying inflammation and swelling of the joint. Paracetamol may… Read More »


What do they do? Analgesics are drugs designed specifically to relieve pain. There are several types of analgesics: acetaminophen (Tylenol), which is available without a prescription, and a variety of opioid analgesics, which are available only with a prescription. Some products combine acetaminophen with an opioid analgesic for added relief. How do they work? Opioid… Read More »

Antiemetic Drugs, Types, Safe antiemetics in pregnancy and children

What are antiemetic drugs? Antiemetic drugs are prescribed to help with nausea and vomiting that are side effects of other drugs. This may include drugs for anesthesia used during surgeries or chemotherapy for cancer. Antiemetic drugs are also used for nausea and vomiting caused by: motion sickness morning sickness during pregnancy severe cases of the… Read More »

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) MOA, Usage, Side effects

What are proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and how do they work (mechanism of action)? Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the production of acid by blocking the enzyme in the wall of the stomach that produces acid. Acid is necessary for the formation of most ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, and the reduction of acid… Read More »


The quinolones (including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) are broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotics used in the treatment of a wide variety of infections including those of the urinary tract, respiratory-tract, gastro-intestinal system, bones and joints, as well as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and septicaemia. Ciprofloxacin is also used in the treatment or post-exposure prophylaxis of… Read More »

What is Penicillin? Uses, side effects and precautions

What is penicillin? Penicillin V is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Penicillin V is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections,. Penicillin V may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. Important information… Read More »

Cephalosporins, Classification and usage

Cephalosporins are bactericidal β-lactam antibiotics. They inhibit enzymes in the cell wall of susceptible bacteria, disrupting cell synthesis. There are 5 generations of cephalosporins Pharmacology Cephalosporins penetrate well into most body fluids and the ECF of most tissues, especially when inflammation (which enhances diffusion) is present. However, the only cephalosporins that reach CSF levels high enough… Read More »

Bactericidal vs Bacteriostatic

Antibiotics are generally divided into two groups based on their mode of action. Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit reproduction and growth, while bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria. Bactericidal vs bacteriostatic can be different in many aspects. This article will highlight those differences as well as other distinction approaches of antibiotics, such as broad spectrum and narrow spectrum… Read More »